The flora between Lake Maggiore and Lake Como is characterized, on the one hand, by the mild climate. The Alpine arc in the north and the mountains of the area protect it from the cold winds from the north. On the other hand, the area is one of the most humid in Switzerland and Italy. Northeast of Lake Maggiore the annual precipitation reaches 3000 mm, in Vararo near Cittiglio 2000 mm. The microclimatic differences between the steep southern slopes near the lakes and the neighboring high mountain regions are remarkable. Geologically, the area is diverse, gneiss is widespread, but also limestone, dolomite, as well as magmatic rocks north of Varese. The combination of these factors results in a very diverse flora, ranging from almost Mediterranean to alpine habitats. The vegetation is lush as in few places in Europe and there are many wetlands. The book “Flora between Lago Maggiore and Lake Como” by Michael Kleih, published by Nomos-Verlag, contains a detailed description of the area and all the species that occur.